Tatsache Evolution: Was Darwin nicht wissen konnte (German Edition)
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Opinions on the relationship between systematics and phylogeny differed considerably. Many authors admitted that phylogeny must be mirrored in systematics but at the same time shared Haeckel's views on classification, which permitted paraphyletic groupings. Particularly Abel and Naef took systematics several steps further, and many important elements of phylogenetic systematics were developed several decades before Hennig.
Naef presented a definition of a phylogenetic group that exactly matches Hennig's definition of monophyly.
He also formulated a species concept that was implicitly based on reproductive isolation. This was an important presupposition for viewing speciation as the splitting of a stem species into daughter species. However, many authors of the first half of the 20th century repeated old, but established views on phylogenetics, while others overlooked or misunderstood earlier progressive views thus causing slow development of phylogenetic systematics in Central Europe.
Its development almost stopped between and , because of a widespread shift towards typology and extreme idealistic morphology. During that time very few persons such as W. Zimmermann and W. Hennig assembled elements of phylogenetic systematics and combined them with their own thoughts to create a sound theory and methodology. Volume 19 , Issue 6. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
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Abstract An outline of the development of phylogenetic thinking and methodology in German literature published between and is presented. Citing Literature. It could come from the ground which was warmed up by the sun. Noise could be generated by waves bouncing off some of the sharp edges in their antenna. Oneby one the scientists investigated and discounted all these sources.
They covered up the sharp edges with aluminum tape. They turned the antenna towards and away from major cities like New York. And of course, finally in desperation, they cleaned up waste from a family of pigeons that was roosting in a small part of the antenna horn. They dispatched these pigeons to the main offices of Bell Labs like good homing pigeons the birds promptly showed up two days later.
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The noise still would not disappear. Like constant mumbling from disgruntled voters at a campaign speech, it simply would not die. The two men were accomplished scientists and they did not doubt their own skills. Wilson had gotten his PhD. Their temperaments also complemented each other. Penzias was a big picture man, trying to tie together facts in an overarching thread. Wilson was much more detail-oriented and could patiently tinker with equipment until he got it right. Together the scientists were confident in their analysis and believed they had discarded all sources of noise.
Yet it remained. For the moment they decided to take a break. It was December of that year, and Penzias was coming back on an airplane from a conference. He had just seen a manuscript written by a physicist named Jim Peebles at Princeton University along with his supervisor Robert Dicke. The manuscript predicted that because of the intense heat during the birth of the universe, there should exist today a remnant of the Big Bang, which would manifest itself uniformly as steady background radiation.
Because of the time elapsed since the Big Bang, the temperature of this radiation should be no more than afew degrees kelvin above absolute zero. Oh yes, and it should be detectable as constant hiss in a good radio telescope. But it surely must have sent his heart racing. Intrigued, Penzias called Dicke. When he confirmed its authenticity, he must have felt an intense mix of excitement, amazement and chagrin. He had narrowly missed making the discovery that won Penzias and Wilson the Nobel Prize for physics in Penzias and Wilson in front of the Holmdel radio antenna.
Sounds from a faraway time. The evolution of the idea of the cosmic microwave background is almost a textbook study of ignorance and triumph, and how experimentalists and theoreticians can sometimes unintentionally delay progress by failing to communicate with one another. Later the theory was developed by the brilliant and colorful Russian physicist, scotch lover and popular science writer George Gamow and his colleagues, Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman.
This was based on their ideas about nucleosynthesis- the formation of elements in the universe. Robert Herman left and Ralph Alpher. In Edwin Hubble had already made the groundbreaking discovery that the universe seemed to be expanding. This meant that at some point back in time it must have been infinitely compressed. Compression means high temperature, in this case, a very high temperature of 10 billion degrees when the universe was only one second old. At this temperature matter as we know it ceases to exist, and the universe consists of a thick boiling broth of subatomic particles and electromagnetic radiation in the form of very high frequency gamma rays.
Electromagnetic radiation is emitted and absorbed by all electrically charged particles. When there are a sufficient number of particles, this radiation manifests itself as black-body radiation.
Black-body radiation can be defined by a certain value of energy at a given frequency range and thus can be completely fixed by the temperature. At ten billion degrees, there would be massive creation of electrons and positrons from the energy of other moving particles.http://web.difccourts.ae/cmo-tratar-con-gente-difcil-serie-inteligencia-emocional.php
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But after one second, Big Bang theory physics predicts that if the number of photons is larger than the number of matter particles, then the initial black-body radiation will continue to be black-body radiation. The only change in this radiation is that it cools with the expansion of the universe. About , years after the beginning, an epochal event happened. Thus, even today, almost fifteen billion years later, space should be filled with black-body radiation left over from the Big Bang.
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Its temperature should be roughly 3 K. This at least was what Alpher and Gamow conjectured. But they were not the first ones to think about it. In fact the microwave background had been indirectly observed in the late s and early 40s by American astronomers. Unfortunately, there was yet no theoretical framework in which this observation could fit, and it became part of the countless number of other details in astronomy. Now, when Gamow, Alpher and Herman formed their ideas, they did not know about this experimental work. Most incredibly, a couple of years later, two Russian physicists published a paper saying that not only should this background exist, but that the best detecting instrument for it would be the radio antenna in Holmdel, New Jersey!
As if to cap this circus of ignorance and lack of communication, Penzias, Wilson and Dicke had all not heard of these earlier predictions; somehow unlike the cosmic background, the signal had been lost in the noise. One can only wonder how things would be if this drama were to be enacted today, in the era of the Internet and Email. Dicke in fact thought he was the first one proposing the cosmic microwave background. His reasoning was fascinating and harkened back to analogies in Hindu and Buddhist philosophies about the creation of the universe.